Saturday, 24 November 2012

Food Preservation

Preservation of food can be done in two ways:

1. By killing microorganisms that cause spoilage of food.
2. By making the conditions unsuitable for microorganisms to survive.

For more information, please click on World Of Materials.

Monday, 29 October 2012

Factors that affect the rate of evaporation

1.     Temperature
If the temperature increases, the rate of evaporation increases.
2.     Wind
If it is a windy day, the cloth will dry faster.
3.     Surface area
If the surface area increases, the rate of evaporation increases.

Different between :
At the surface
In the liquid
Any temperature
Certain temperature

Sunday, 28 October 2012

Protecting endangered species

1. Extinction of animals/ plant species
    * Death of all members of a species
    * Extinct animals include the dodo, the quagga and the Tasmanian tiger.

 Tasmanian tiger                                                                           Dodo

2. Endangered species
    * Species of animals and plants facing the threat of extinction.
    * Endangered animals : turtles, deer, rhinoceros, tapirs and pandas.
    * Endangered plants : Rafflesia and the pitcher plant

Rafflesia                    Pitcher plant

3. Factors that cause the extinction of animals and plants:
    * illegal and excessive logging
    * poaching and excessive hunting
    * excessive development
    * illegal mining
    * extensive agriculture

4. Efforts undertaken to protect endangered animals and plants:
    * preventing excessive logging
    * enforcing laws against poaching and illegal logging
    * avoiding consumption of products made from endangered species
    * educating the public on the importance of conserving animal and plant species
    * setting up breeding centers for endangered animal species
    * establishing forest reserves
    * replanting endangered plant species


Solitary animals are animals that live alone in their own habitats to avoid competition for food, space and mates. They can protect themselves from their enemies. They hunt for their own food. They also have their own territory. Animals that live solitary are owls, pandas, bears, tigers etc.


Some animals live in groups or in the same habitats. They lived together for safety so that they can protect themselves from their enemies. They also look for food together. At certain seasons, they will breed among themselves.Animals that live in groups are ants, bees, dolphins, wolves, elephant etc.

Friday, 5 October 2012

Basic needs of animals

What do animals need for living?


1. Air

2. Water

3. Food

4. Shelters